Exfoliant. Alpha-hydroxy acid eliminates dead skin build up and improves skin hydration.
Exfoliant. Beta-hydroxy acid that refines the pores and helps to reduce acne. Has lipophilic (dissolves oil) properties and penetrates deep inside the pores. Has soothing properties to calm the skin.
Exfoliant. Alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) that accelerates the skin’s own natural shedding process. Helps stimulate collagen production. Lactic acid may be extracted from cow milk, although most formulations used are synthetic. More gentle than glycolic acid.
Keratolytic - accelerates the skin’s shedding process. Comedolytic – dries out problem areas.
Antioxidant, effective for skin brightening. Antibacterial properties and helps to unclog pores.
Derived from plants, with antioxidant properties.
(Vitamin B3) Potent antioxidant that fights inflammation and hyperpigmentation. Improves the appearance of enlarged pores and uneven skintone.
Short chain amino acid that kills Acne-causing P. Acne Bacteria and is also an anti-inflammatory
Excellent at boosting skin’s moisture content. Antioxidant and anti-ageing properties. Capable of holding up to 1,000 times its own weight in water.
Powerful redness reducing agent derived from the Chinese Evodia rutaecarpa plant.
THE AMOUNT OF THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT THAT IS ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN
depends on the following factors
This varies with body site, age, skin disorder (thin skin absorbs more).
SKIN BARRIER FUNCTION
Stratum corneum (outermost layer of the epidermis) cell layer disrupted by dermatitis, ichthyosis and keratolytic agents such as salicylic acid and absorbs more.
Up to 10 times more absorption if occluded e.g. skin folds or under a dressing or greasy ointment.
MOLECULAR SIZE OF THE CHEMICAL
Small molecules are more easily absorbed.
WHETHER THE CHEMICAL IS LIPOPHILIC
Lipophilic agents are better absorbed through the stratum corneum layer which is made up of lipids including ceramides, cholesterol and fatty acids.
Stronger concentrations may penetrate more effectively.
Other ingredients in the formulation may interact to increase or reduce potency or absorption rates.